Inside Italy’s Shadow Economy 義大利影子經濟內幕

【好讀人文歷史報】以生活化方式,讓你輕鬆認識歷史上的大小新鮮事,並從全新視野觀照歷史。 想瞭解最時尚、自然的Life Style?輕鬆成為新時代生活達人?【晨星生活元氣報】讓你輕鬆掌握最新生活訊息!

無法正常瀏覽圖片,請按這裡看說明   無法正常瀏覽內容,請按這裡線上閱讀
新聞  健康  財經  追星  NBA台灣  udn部落格  udnTV  讀書吧  

讀紐時學英文
2018/10/12 第236期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 Inside Italy’s Shadow Economy 義大利影子經濟內幕
F1 Turns to High-Tech 切斷菸草廣告 F1求助科技業

紐時周報精選
 

Inside Italy’s Shadow Economy 義大利影子經濟內幕
作者/Elizabeth Paton and Milena
譯/王麗娟

In a second-floor apartment in the southern Italian town of Santeramo in Colle, a middle-aged woman sat in a black-padded chair this summer, hard at work at her kitchen table. She carefully stitched a sophisticated woolen coat, the sort of style that will sell for 800 to 2,000 euros ($935 to $2,340) when it arrives in stores this month as part of the fall and winter collection of MaxMara, the Italian luxury fashion brand.

在義大利南部城鎮聖埃拉莫因科萊一棟公寓的二樓,一名中年婦女今年夏天坐在黑色軟墊的椅子上,在廚房用桌前辛勤地工作著。她以針線細心縫製一件精緻的羊毛外套,這個款式本月送進商店時,標價800至2,000歐元(935至2,340美元)不等,是義大利奢侈品牌MaxMara秋冬系列的一部分。

But the woman, who asked not to be named for fear that she could lose her livelihood, receives just 1 euro from the factory that employs her for each meter of fabric she completes.

不過,擔心可能因此失去生計而不願透露姓名的這名女性,每完成1公尺面料,只能從雇用她的工廠那裡拿到1歐元。

“It takes me about one hour to sew one meter, so about four to five hours to complete an entire coat,” said the woman, who works without a contract, or insurance, and is paid in cash on a monthly basis. “I try to do two coats per day.”

這名女性說:「我大概1小時縫1公尺,大約4到5小時完成一整件外套。我試著每天做兩件大衣。」 她的工作沒有聘雇合約,也不提供保險,僅按月支領現金。

The unregulated work she completes in her apartment is outsourced to her from a local factory that also manufactures outerwear for some of the best-known names in the luxury business, including Louis Vuitton and Fendi. The most she has ever earned, she said, was 24 euros ($28) for an entire coat.

她在公寓內完成,未受任何規範的這份工作,是當地一家工廠外包給她的,該廠還替奢侈品界另一些知名品牌製造外套,包括路易威登和芬迪。她說,她所獲得的最高收入,是一整件外套24歐元(合28美元)。

Homework — working from home or a small workshop as opposed to in a factory — is a cornerstone of the fast-fashion supply chain. It is particularly prevalent in countries such as India, Bangladesh, Vietnam and China, where millions of low-paid and predominantly female homeworkers are some of the most unprotected in the industry, because of their irregular employment status, isolation and lack of legal recourse.

家庭代工─ 在家中或小型工作室而非工廠工作─已成為快速時尚供應鏈的基石。在印度、孟加拉、越南和中國這些國家,家庭代工尤其普遍,數以百萬計,且主要是女性的家庭代工從業人員 ,因就業狀況不穩定,孤立和欠缺法律追索權,屬於該行業中最缺乏保護的一群。

That similar conditions exist in Italy, however, and facilitate the production of some of the most expensive wardrobe items money can buy, may shock those who see the “Made in Italy” label as a byword for sophisticated craftsmanship.

然而,類似狀況同樣存在於義大利,而且幫忙生產錢能買到的一些最昂貴衣物,卻可能讓視「義大利製造」標籤為精緻工藝代名詞的人震驚。

Increased pressure from globalization and growing competition at all levels of the market mean that the assumption implicit in the luxury promise — that part of the value of such a good is that it is made in the best conditions, by highly skilled workers, who are paid fairly — is at times put under threat.

全球化帶來更大壓力,市場各層面競爭亦日益激烈,意味奢侈品的承諾之一,這種商品部分價值來自它在最佳狀態下,由高技術、拿合理報酬的工人製造的這項隱含的假設,不時受到威脅。

Although they are not exposed to what most people would consider sweatshop conditions, the homeworkers are allotted what might seem close to sweatshop wages. Italy does not have a national minimum wage, but roughly 5 to 7 euros per hour is considered an appropriate standard by many unions and consulting firms. In extremely rare cases, a highly skilled worker can earn as much as 8 to 10 euros an hour. But the homeworkers earn significantly less, regardless of whether they are involved in leatherwork, embroidery or another artisanal task.

儘管他們的處境還不到大多數人會認為是血汗工廠的境地,但家庭代工的工資似已接近血汗工廠。義大利沒有設定全國最低工資,但許多工會和顧問公司認為每小時5-7歐元是適當標準。在極少數情況下,高技術工人每小時可賺取8-10歐元。但是家庭代工的收入低了許多,無論他們從事的是皮革製品,刺繡或其他手工藝工作。

 

F1 Turns to High-Tech 切斷菸草廣告 F1求助科技業
作者/Kate Walker
譯/李京倫

For decades, Formula One was synonymous with tobacco. Not only was the sport awash with money from cigarette companies, but the cars’ liveries were also reflections of their sponsors, from the red and white Marlboro McLarens to the black and gold of the John Player Special Lotus.

一級方程式賽車(F1)曾有數十年是菸草的同義詞,不但這項運動充斥著菸商的資金,賽車的外觀也反映出贊助商是誰,例如紅白兩色的萬寶路麥拉倫車隊,以及黑金二色的John Player Special蓮花車隊。

Tobacco brought in an average of $350 million per year for Formula One earlier this decade, and companies like British American Tobacco and Philip Morris International helped pay for the sport’s continuous cycle of development, the technological arms race that often ensured that those who spent the most won the most.

2010年代開始的頭幾年,菸商平均每年為F1帶來3.5億美元的收入,英美菸草和菲利普莫里斯國際這類公司為這項運動的持續發展周期支付開銷,而發展周期是一種技術上的軍備競賽,最肯花錢的往往也贏面最大。

But that all ended late in 2006 after Formula One banned tobacco advertising. In 2015, the last year for which public figures are available, the sport’s 10 teams raised about $750 million from sponsorships, a $200 million drop from 2012. That loss of income hit the sport about the same time as the financial crisis, which forced the Honda, Toyota and Renault teams to shut down, although Renault eventually returned. And now Formula One is reconsidering whether to continue to accept advertising from alcohol, fast-food and snack companies.

但在2006年底F1禁止菸草廣告之後,這一切全結束了。在2015年,也就是F1公開資料能取得的最後一年,這項運動的10支車隊總共從贊助商籌到大約7.5億美元,比2012年少了2億美元。收入的減損約與金融危機同時衝擊這項運動,金融危機迫使本田、豐田和雷諾車隊退出賽事,不過雷諾最後回來了。現在F1正在重新考慮是否繼續接受酒類、速食和零食公司的廣告。

So the sport has been looking for a new vein of money, and in the last few years teams have been working to form partnerships with the deep-pocket companies in the technology industry that would bring not only high-tech expertise, but also revenue.

因此,這項運動一直在尋找新的金脈,在過去幾年裡,車隊一直致力與科技業資金雄厚的公司建立合作夥伴關係,這種關係不僅會帶來高科技專業知識,還會帶來收入。

Technology and Formula One are natural partners, and companies like Microsoft and Dell have long invested in the sport. Mercedes, the current champion, has a number of technical partners, including wireless technology company Qualcomm and audio experts Bose, as well as Tibco, Pure Storage, Rubrik and Epson. Microsoft Dynamics has partnered with the Renault team since 2012, and Dell returned to the sport this year with McLaren, having previously worked with the now-defunct Caterham team.

科技和F1是天生的合作夥伴,微軟和戴爾這類公司長期投資這項運動。目前的冠軍車隊梅賽德斯有不少技術合作夥伴,包括無線技術公司高通和音頻專家博士企業,以及基礎設施軟體供應商Tibco、資料儲存設備業者Pure Storage、提供雲端數據備份的公司Rubrik和資訊影像設備製造商精工愛普生。微軟商業軟體Microsoft Dynamics自2012年起就與雷諾車隊合作,而戴爾今年與麥拉倫一起重返這項運動,此前戴爾曾與現已解散的卡特漢姆車隊合作。

McLaren has been aggressive in obtaining partnerships over the past decade.

過去這十年,麥拉倫一直在積極尋求合作夥伴。

James Bower, McLaren’s marketing director, lived through Formula One’s sponsorship upheaval.

麥拉倫行銷總監鮑爾經歷過F1的贊助變局。

“Towards the end of that era — between 2001 and 2006 when the new directive kicked in — what you did see was some brands (and I would say West and Lucky Strike were probably the more innovative) pushing harder into lifestyle and pushing harder into what we recognize now as the deeper activation levels, as opposed to just slam Marlboro on the side of the car, throw a few parties, entertain some B2B trade retailers and call it a day,” Bower said, referring to business to business.

鮑爾說:「在這個時代即將結束時,也就是2001年到禁止菸草廣告新指令生效的2006年之間,你看到的是一些菸草品牌(我會說威仕和鴻運可能更具創新力)更加努力讓自己成為一種生活方式,並更加努力推進到我們現在認識的更深層次啟動階段,而不是只把萬寶路商標貼在賽車外側,辦幾場社交聚會,招待一些B2B貿易零售商,然後就收工。」鮑爾說的B2B指的是企業對企業。

※說文解字看新聞

本文談F1切斷菸草商贊助後,車隊轉而尋求與科技業者建立合作夥伴關係,從中獲得資金和高科技。

Sponsor當名詞時有幾個含意,第一是為倡議者、發起人、主辦者。第二是為了廣告目的而支付體育、藝術活動或廣播、電視節目開銷的個人或組織。第三是基督宗教的「教父母」(godparent)或「代父母」,也是此字1651年出現時的意義。在天主教內,每個領受洗禮的人一定會有代父母,想領洗的問道者要先經過一段時間的培育,稱為慕道期。

Sponsor也能當動詞,如果一個國家指控另一國sponsor attacks,就是認為另一國放任攻擊發生而不阻止,state-sponsored terrorism是國家支持的恐怖活動。形容詞是sponsorial,意為保證人的、教父母的、主辦人的。sponsorship則是贊助金或贊助行為。

 

訊息公告
 

常見警訊 注意荷爾蒙已失衡
性荷爾蒙失衡問題,不只更年期,年輕女性也不可忽視。女性朋友們若出現以下症狀,即可能是性荷爾蒙失衡了,應正視問題並及早因應做改善。

軍職人員投保 三點教戰
《陸海空軍軍官士官服役條例》修正實施,不少人刷存摺時發現減幅超過預期。專家指出,軍職人員役期短、退除早、離退率高,可依三種服役年資,趁早規劃個人風險保障。

 

本電子報著作權均屬「聯合線上公司」或授權「聯合線上公司」使用之合法權利人所有,
禁止未經授權轉載或節錄。若對電子報內容有任何疑問或要求轉載授權,請【
聯絡我們】。
  免費電子報 | 著作權聲明 | 隱私權聲明 | 聯絡我們
udnfamily : news | video | money | stars | health | reading | mobile | data | NBA TAIWAN | blog | shopping