Teaming Up to Get Workers Ready for Technology of the Future 聯手為未來科技培訓人力

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讀紐時學英文
2018/10/19 第237期 訂閱/退訂看歷史報份
 
 

紐時周報精選 Teaming Up to Get Workers Ready for Technology of the Future 聯手為未來科技培訓人力
Children’s Books Authors Are Selling More Than Books. They’re Taking a Stand. 童書作家不只賣書還推政治主張

紐時周報精選
 

Teaming Up to Get Workers Ready for Technology of the Future 聯手為未來科技培訓人力
作者/Ellen Rosen
譯/王麗娟

Shawn Reese is the perfect example of the complicated route that can lie ahead for workers of the future — but also for the opportunities that are emerging.

從項恩.里斯的例子可以充分看出未來工作者可能面臨的複雜道路,卻也能同時看到應運而生的機會。

He graduated from Quinsigamond Community College in Worcester, Massachusetts, in May with a degree in electronics engineering, a field that — like most — is undergoing rapid change. A degree today is unlikely to be enough preparation for the challenges of tomorrow. So what is a student, a university, an industry, to do?

他今年5月畢業於麻州伍斯特市的「昆西加蒙社區學院」,取得電子工程學位,和多數領域一樣,這個領域也在快速變遷之中。今天的學位不太可能為明天的挑戰做好充分的準備。如此一來,學生,大學,以及產業該如何因應?

One approach is the one taken by AIM Photonics — its AIM Photonics Academy — and a group of community colleges and universities that have banded together over the last five years to develop emerging technologies and train the work forces needed to sustain them. (AIM stands for the American Institute for Manufacturing Integrated Photonics; we’ll get to the photonics part in a moment.)

途徑之一是「AIM 光子學」財團的「AIM光子學院」,和一群社區學院、大學所採取的一項作法。它們五年來聯手開發新興技術,以及培養支撐這些技術所需的人力。(AIM全名為「美國製造積體光學研究所」;我們待會兒就會論及光子學的部分。)

The partnership is one of 14 across the country focusing on emerging technologies and industries addressing an increasingly important and frequently vexing question: how to prepare workers at all levels — technicians as well as people with doctoral degrees — for new technologies, like integrated photonics, that are in development, but only at the very early stages of commercial use.

這項夥伴關係是全美14個中的一個,聚焦於新興技術和產業,以解決一個日益重要且經常令人煩惱的問題:如何為積體光學等正在發展中、但就商業用途而言仍處於非常初階的新技術,儲備所有各階層的人才,包括技師和擁有博士學位的專家。

“Because the jobs don’t exist yet, we need to train students in the skills that are relevant today so they can get a job, but at the same time, very selectively, begin to supplement the training relevant to new industries,” said Sajan Saini, the education director of the AIM Photonics Academy, which is based at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge.

「AIM光子學院」教育主任薩揚.賽尼說:「因為這些工作還不存在,我們必須讓學生學會當下用得上的一些技術,讓他們能夠謀生,同一時間,非常有選擇性地,開始補充和新產業有關的一些訓練。」「AIM光子學院」設在劍橋「麻省理工學院」內。

In his view, the way to accomplish this is by creating “a staggered educational curriculum so that the learning never stops.”

在他看來,實現這一目標的方法,是創建一套「交錯式的教育課程,讓學習永不止步」。

And that brings us to photonics: It’s the science of using particles of light, or photons, as an energy source (as opposed to electrons) and derives from work by Albert Einstein and others that began more than a century ago. It figures in a wide range of modern devices, from CT scans to bar codes, to laser-guided missiles, cellphone networks and more. Light-based technologies are energy efficient, reliable and fast.

這將我們帶回到光子學:它是以光粒子,或稱光子為能源(相對於電子)的一門科學,源自亞伯特.愛因斯坦等人在一個多世紀前展開的工作。光子學已應用於多種現代裝置,從電腦斷層掃描、條碼,再到雷射導引飛彈、手機網絡等。以光為基礎的技術被認為節能、可靠又快速。

Integrated photonics is still a developing technology that enables components to work seamlessly together. It is expected to be incorporated in telecommunications and computing, to name just two applications, and could, by 2025, comprise a market exceeding $5 billion, said Lionel Kimerling, the AIM Photonics Academy executive.

積體光學仍是一種開發中的技術,可讓組件無縫地協同工作。「AIM光子學院」主管萊諾.基默林說,預計它將被納入電信和計算領域,這只是諸多應用中的兩項,而且到2025年時積體光學的市場可能超越50億美元。

 

Children’s Books Authors Are Selling More Than Books. They’re Taking a Stand. 童書作家不只賣書還推政治主張
作者/Maria Russo
譯/王麗娟

When photos began circulating of migrant children separated from their parents and placed in what looked like giant cages in detention centers, young adult novelists Melissa de la Cruz and Margaret Stohl had an immediate response. After texting nine author friends asking what they could collectively do, de la Cruz and Stohl drafted a statement of protest called “Kidlit Says No Kids in Cages,” denouncing “practices that should be restricted to the pages of dystopian novels.”

移民兒童被迫與父母分離,安置在拘留中心看似巨大籠子中的照片開始流傳後,青少年成長類小說家梅麗莎.德拉克魯茲和瑪格麗特.史托爾立即有所反應。在給九位作家朋友發簡訊詢問大夥可集體做些什麼後,德拉克魯茲與史托爾草擬了一分抗議聲明,主旨是「兒童文學說籠子裡不該有孩子」,以譴責這些「只應出現在反烏托邦小說中的作法」。

Within minutes, they had 94 signatures from “our fellow kidlit authors and supporters,” de la Cruz said. A day later the statement was posted on Twitter with more than 4,000 signatures. The group has now raised nearly $240,000 for legal services for the migrant families.

德拉克魯茲說,幾分鐘內,他們就獲得來自「兒童文學作家同業與支持者」94人的連署。一天後,該聲明在推特網站上發表,連署者超過4,000人。該團體現已籌得近24萬美元,用於協助移民家庭打官司。

They also expanded fundraising to include online raffles and auctions for such services as manuscript evaluations by best-selling children’s authors and “character naming,” with the winning donor’s name to appear in an as-yet-to-be-written novel.

他們還擴大募款行動,舉辦網路抽獎和拍賣一些服務,如由暢銷童書作者提供稿件評鑑以及「角色命名」等,讓得獎捐款人的名字可出現在尚未寫成的小說中。

Another group of kidlit authors, agents and publishers made an online clearinghouse of original posters designed by prominent children’s book illustrators to protest family separation, all available for free download.

另一群兒童文學作家、代理商和出版商,則設置了一個網路交流中心,供人免費下載原創海報,全出自知名童書插畫家的手筆,以抗議政府拆散移民家庭為內容。

Children’s book creators similarly coordinated a response after the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shootings in Parkland, Florida, in February. Graphic novelist Raina Telgemeier and YA novelist Jenny Han set up a group called Kidlit Marches for Kids, rallying colleagues to join the March 24 gun control protest spearheaded by the Parkland students, and designing a protest sign for marchers.

今年二月,佛州帕克蘭市馬喬瑞.史東曼.道格拉斯中學發生校園槍擊案時,童書創作者也做了類似的聯合反應。繪本小說家雷娜.泰格邁爾和青少年成長類小說家珍妮.韓創立一個名為「兒童文學為孩子遊行」的團體,召集同事參加由帕克蘭學生帶頭,3月24日舉行的支持槍枝管制抗議活動,並為遊行者設計了一個抗議標誌圖案。

“We wanted to boost the signal of the kids,” Telgemeier said. Hundreds of kidlit authors marched under the banner in cities including San Francisco, New York and Pittsburgh.

泰格邁爾說:「我們希望強化這些孩子所傳達的訊號。」 數百名兒童文學作家在同一個旗幟下,於數個城市進行示威,包括舊金山、紐約和匹茲堡。

Children’s books have always been political, of course — that is why they are fixtures on lists of banned or censored books. And the welfare of children has long been at the forefront for authors who write for them. But current children’s book creators are finding new outlets for their concerns, often banding together, with the support of social media, to increase their effect.

當然,童書一直都很政治,這是它們成了禁書或審查書籍清單常客的原因。兒童的福祉長期以來一直是為他們著書的作家們的重中之重。不過,現今童書創作者正在尋找新的管道來表達他們對於一些議題的關切,經常團結一起,透過社群媒體,提高他們的影響力。

If the old image of a writer for children was a wise-child genius in the mold of Maurice Sendak — one who spoke up for kids and when necessary challenged the political powers that be, but indirectly — these days, children’s authors might not only hold signs at protest marches, they may also volunteer to strategize for a state assembly race, or even run for office.

若說童書作家舊形象是以莫里斯.桑達克(美國著名童書繪本作家及插畫家)為模型的天才聰明小子,替孩子發言,必要時挑戰政治勢力,但係以間接方式。現在,童書作者不僅在抗議遊行中高舉抗議牌,他們還可能自願為州議會競選獻策,甚至競選公職。

 

訊息公告
 

和你聊天的是人 還是機器?
人工智慧理論源自於英國的數學科學家–艾倫·麥席森·圖靈,他曾在著名的論文《計算機器和智能》中提出值得深省的問題:「機器能夠思考嗎?」。

有時理解比教導更重要
常常聽到有人說,第一胎照書養,第二胎照豬養。兩種教養方式顯然不同,若走向極端卻又都未必適合,若能互相兼顧,反而能夠幫助我們更加理解孩子。

 

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